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Cloning is the process of producing an organism that is an exact replica of the parent. The organism thus produced is known as a clone and is genetically identical to the parent. The process of cloning requires a mature somatic (except sperms and egg) cell from the body of the parent animal. In the case of normal reproduction event, half of the DNA is from father and half is from the mother which induces the variations in an individual and as a result creates the individual, who has its own unique DNA. The process of cloning requires the removal of a somatic cell from the body of the parent and this cell is the source of DNA for the clone. As the probability of sexual reproduction is ruled out, the probability of variation is also ruled out and this results in producing an exact replica or clone of the individual parent the cloned egg is allowed to mature into the early embryonic stage before it is implanted in the womb of a female for gestation. The individual who is born out of this process is known as a clone. There are two types of cloning namely therapeutic and reproductive. The only difference between the two is that the embryo is not transferred in the womb 0f the mother in the therapeutic cloning. The sheep, Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned. Proponents of human cloning swear by the advantages it will offer to the humans' Scientists are of the opinion that they can reverse the ageing process, as well as the heart attacks. Heart attack victims can be treated by cloning and injecting 0f healthy cells in the areas of the heart that have been damaged. This will lead to shortening of the organ donation list and save more lives. In fact, the chances of rejection will be less in such cases as this will not be recognised as a foreign body by the human body. Embryonic stem cells' can be used to produce organs, tissues or repair the damaged ones. Skin, brain, hearts, lungs and kidneys etc. can be produced utilising these cells. Conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease can also be cured with the help of cloning. Cloning can be helpful in genetics. The scientists can gather a better understanding of the genes their patterns, and effects on human traits. This could be helpful in doing away with many genetic diseases. With cloning at their hands, researchers can easily clone the organism as per their requirements of research. These organisms could be used for the purpose of research. The process of '~ healing and recovery would also be narrowed down with the use of the ' individual's own cell. Reproductive cloning is helpful for the childless couples. The infertile individuals who have lost their ability to produce reproductive cells can experience the joy of parenthood. In fact, same sex couples can have children through this method. The clones of endangered animals can be created to increase their population. Although the scientists were successful in creating clones from the skin cells of infants and human beings, none of these embryos were allowed to mature. A number of ethical concerns overpower the same. In the case of reproductive cloning, one of the major concerns is that the children will be designed and replicated as per the parents' wish. This will lead to the lack of uniqueness among the children. This, in turn, will give rise to the concerns regarding the human individuality and freedom. Another important ethical concern is that the children living under the shadow of their genetic donor will always be expected to live up to the images of the persons from whom they were Created Religious groups are of the opinion that cloning is against God creation and nature, as the clone would be created by man. Cloning research requires. A supply of human eggs. Every month, a normal healthy woman usually produces one or two mature eggs. But, in order to increase the number significantly, doses of stimulatory medications which are used in IVF procedures must be given to the woman. In rare cases, these drugs can provoke a hyper stimulation syndrome that can lead to liver damage, kidney failure or stroke. Such drugs are known to increase the risk of ovarian cancer. In fact, the surgery to retrieve the eggs also has risks associated with it. In case the woman is offered commercial benefits for providing eggs, the value of the human reproductive material is restricted to a commodity. , While on one hand cloning of body organs can be helpful in organ replacement, there is a chance that people may deliberately reproduce other individuals with undesired traits. This will lead to the increase in malpractices in the society.
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