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Blood is an important fluid that keeps us alive. We cannot live without it. The heart pumps blood to all parts of the body and brings them oxygen and food. At the same time blood carries all the substances we don't need away from us. Blood fights infections, keeps our body temperature the same and carries chemicals that control body functions. Finally, blood has substances that repair broken blood vessels so that we don't bleed to death. Plasma is the liquid part of our blood. It makes up about 50-60% of it. Plasma consists mostly of water but many other substances are in it. It contains dissolved food, chemicals that control our growth and do other jobs, proteins, minerals and waste products. Red blood cells look like flat round discs. They contain haemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to the body and gives blood its red colour. Each drop of blood has about 300 million of these red cells. White blood cells, also called leukocytes, fight infections and harmful substances that invade the body. Most of these cells are round and colourless. They have different sizes and shapes. White blood cells are not as numerous as red ones. For every 700 red blood cells there is only one white blood cell. Platelets are tiny bodies that are much smaller than red blood cells. They stick to the edges of a cut and form blood clots to stop bleeding. The blood of a normal adult has about 2trillion platelets. The circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. The heart pumps blood through big blood vessels called arteries and veins. In our body there are also millions of small blood vessels called capillaries. Oxygen, food and other substances pass through the thin walls of these capillaries into the tissue. When you inhale air oxygen passes through your lungs and and is picked up by haemoglobin which transports it to your whole body. It is released into cells which produce energy. In return cells produce carbon dioxide which enters your blood stream and is transported back to your lungs where it is exhaled. Food also reaches your body by means of blood. It is digested in your stomach and important substances like fat, sugar, proteins, vitamins and minerals are separated. These nutrients enter your blood stream and are moved to the cells and muscles where they are needed in order to give you energy or fuel. The work of the muscles and other tissue creates heat. Blood is the transporting system which carries heat throughout your body and warms you. The things that you don't need are transported to your intestines and kidneys and leave your body again. White blood cells play an important role in your immune system. When harmful substances invade your body an alarm goes off and white blood cells are activated. Then they work to destroy the invaders. They fight off viruses, harmful bacteria and begin anti-body production. Blood also carries hormones to places where they are needed. When a hormone reaches a part of the body it controls growth, how the body uses food and other things. You would bleed to death from a small cut if your blood didn't clot. When a blood vessel breaks platelets rush to the damaged area and stick to one another, forming a plug. Blood cells come from bone marrow. They begin as stem cells and then develop into red or white blood cells, or platelets. They don't live forever and must be replaced by new ones. Red blood cells live an average of 120days before wearing out. Then they are captured and destroyed in the liver and spleen. Platelets live only for about 10days. The amount of blood in your body depends on your size, weight and the altitude at which you live. An adult who weighs 80 kg has about 5 litres of blood, a 40 kg child about half the amount. People who live in high areas where the air is thinner need more blood to deliver more oxygen to the body.
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